Why Did Caesar Need to Attack Britain Twice?
Julius Caesar conquered most of Gaul with well-honed and successful military tactics: his highly equipped army waged war at unexpected times, such as during harvest and even in winter. However, when Caesar moved his campaign from Gaul to Britain in 55 BC and applied the very same tactics, his first landing failed because he had overstretched his supply lines. Only after learning from this failure and adapting his approach in the following year was he able to establish Roman rule over Britain, which lasted for 450 years.
“Order and simplification are the first steps toward the mastery of a subject.”— Thomas Mann
Eastman Kodak held a dominant position in the photographic-film business during most of the 20th century. Given its 89 percent market share in the U.S. in 1976 and cutting-edge R&D, the company apparently saw little reason to adjust its strategy. In 1975, a Kodak engineer even built the first prototypes of the digital camera. However, the innovation did not sink in at Kodak and the company focused on selling traditional film and lab equipment. By the end of the 1990s, as digital cameras built into cell phones hit the market, Kodak began to struggle; in 2012, it filed for bankruptcy. (It emerged from bankruptcy in 2013.)